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Between the 14th and 15th centuries much of Sudan was settled by Arab nomads.
From the 16th–19th centuries, central and eastern Sudan were dominated by the Funj sultanate, while Darfur ruled the west and the Ottomans the far north.
Initially, the term "Sudanese" had a negative connotation in Sudan due to its association with black African slaves.
It was established after the Bronze Age collapse and the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Egypt, centered at Napata in its early phase.By the eighth millennium BC, people of a Neolithic culture had settled into a sedentary way of life there in fortified mudbrick villages, where they supplemented hunting and fishing on the Nile with grain gathering and cattle herding.During the fifth millennium BC, migrations from the drying Sahara brought neolithic people into the Nile Valley along with agriculture.Sudan's history goes back to the Pharaonic period, witnessing the kingdom of Kerma ( 785 BC–350 AD), which would in turn control Egypt itself for nearly a century.After the fall of Kush, the Nubians formed the three Christian kingdoms of Nobatia, Makuria and Alodia, with the latter two lasting until around 1500.
Between 18, the harsh Egyptian reign was eventually met with a successful revolt led by the self-proclaimed Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad, resulting in the establishment of the Caliphate of Omdurman.