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The movement for the revival of Islam as the only valid basis for social and political life was perhaps the most significant aspect of this change.
With the rise of Islamic political movements in the 1970s and 1980s, writers and activists formulated diverse ideas about social and political organization.
For most of this school, the ideal was to live in the inherited Islamic framework and to preserve the continuity of the Islamic tradition.
This contrasts in many ways with the thinking of the advocates of democratic reform, most of whom accepted Islam as a body of principles but believed that secular norms of nationalism and liberal democracy were best suited to the reorganization and regulation of Arab society and politics.
From about 1900 until the early 1950s, two lines of thought regarding the proper bases of government coexisted in the Middle East.
Supporters of the first advocated the principles of secularism and constitutional democracy, including representative government based on broad political participation.
And Orban’s commitments were to halt any further surrenders of Hungarian sovereignty and independence to the European Union, and to fight any immigrant invasion of Hungary from Africa or the Islamic world.Following the dissolution of the Ottoman state, this principle was advanced by leaders of political groups and national liberation movements; it seemed to have reached its logical end with the establishment of quasi-constitutional systems in a number of Arab countries on the model of Western-style democracies.Experimentation with democracy was not, however, a happy experience.Rigged elections, puppet governments, arbitrary arrests, and rubber-stamp parliaments raised serious doubts about the ability of the Arabs to create and tolerate democratic institutions and practices.Following a second line of thought were those who believed that Islamic law and institutions should be the basis of political and social organization.